30 Aug 2014

The incredible rise of the GPU. Featured

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The incredible rise of the GPU The incredible rise of the GPU Nvidia


Guest author Rakesh Malik tells a short history of Intel and how graphics processing units (GPUs) came to steal the thunder of the giant chip maker.

In the early days, Intel's 8086 and 8088 processors were fairly primitive compared to their contemporaries. Their main advantage was cost, but Intel was far from the powerhouse that it is now.

As the market for personal computers grew, so did Intel; like Microsoft, Intel made their processors available to other computer manufacturers besides IBM. Eventually, Intel grew large enough to buy back its stock from IBM and go its own way.

Compared to the far costlier RISC machines that cost tens of thousands of dollars, the 386 was anemic when it came to performance; it didn't even include floating point arithmetic support. The options were to implement floating point math in software using the integer arithmetic unit, which was slow, or to purchase an 80387 floating point co-processor, which was expensive.

Fabricating leadership

Over the years since then, Intel has continued to grow, not only in market, but also in technical leadership. Modern x86 processors have the advantage of the most advanced fabrication technology in the world, and extremely advanced architectures to go with them.

As a result, x86 processors now dominate personal computers, workstations, and servers, gaming consoles, and even Apple's personal computers. Most of Intel's competitors in the x86 market have failed, unable to keep up with Intel's fabrication technology or performance. Intel's vast economy of scale has enabled them to engage in price wars with competitors, keeping them down long enough for Intel to retake the lead. Even during its heyday when the Athlon64 was at its peak, AMD barely made a dent in Intel's sales or profit margins.

In spite of selling in quantities so vast that it dwarfs the entire x86 market, even the ARM family has thus far had next to no impact on Intel's margins, either. 

And yet, Intel's margins are starting to diminish.

GPU free for all...

The first graphics adapters were little more than frame buffers with hardware optimized for window operations. They basically copied blocks of memory from one place to another so that the host processor didn't need to. They gradually gained features like hardware cursors and double buffering, and eventually Matrox-pioneered, affordable Gouraud shading implementations in hardware, making performant, interactive 3D graphics a possibility on personal computers.

3D games drove the market for 3D graphics accelerators in personal computers, which in turn generated profits, leading to increasingly more advanced graphics capabilities. For a time, it was a free for all, with companies developing graphics processors and proprietary software development kits to go with them. 3D software had to be custom developed for each graphics processor, so portability wasn't an option. Few game developers could support every option available, so they had to pick and choose based on the ones that made their games look and perform their best.

Consumers suffered the most. A graphics card that was great for Tomb Raider might not run Quake at all.

DIrect3D to the rescue

The graphics library free for all ended when Microsoft released Direct3D. nVidia successfully recruited some of the developers who had designed IrisGL, out of which grew OpenGL, from SGI when the graphics company hit a very difficult time in its history and nearly went bankrupt. The expertise that nVidia gained enabled them to get a jump on OpenGL support in Windows, which helped to enable the 3D graphics industry to start migrating to the x86 platform.

It didn't take long for SGI to almost completely lose the graphics market once the combination of increasingly performant host processors, robust OpenGL drivers, and performant graphics processors overtook SGI's vaunted workstations at fractions of the price.

The writing was on the wall for the RISC workstations.

That was the era during which small visual effects shops like Foundation Imaging could implement visual effects for very CG-intensive films like Babylon 5 on Amigas using Video Toasters, and not much later, Zoic with only a handful of animators provided the visual effects for the Dune and Children of Dune miniseries with LightWave on inexpensive personal computers.

Throwing shade

A major characteristic of this time was that although the graphics processors were becoming very powerful, they were also very limited. The final renders still relied almost entirely on the host processor for computing power, and software dedicated primarily to video editing couldn't take much advantage of the graphics hardware at all. 

The next evolution in graphics hardware was to add programmable shader engines. These allowed programmers to implement small programs that could run on the GPU and perform moderately complex shading operations on each polygon in a 3D scene. The vertex computations remained the purview of dedicated vertex processors, which at the time weren't programmable.

The first shader engines were very limited, but that didn't last long. ATI and nVidia launched into an arms race, adding increasingly sophisticated memory infrstructure and more sophisticated and flexible shader engines.

These shader engines were relatively simple. They didn't need sophisticated memory controllers, support for file system access, thread management and so on; that functionality was built into an on-chip controller. Since the processors were small, GPU designers were able to build a lot of them into GPUs.

As they gained in sophistication, they also gained flexibility. Eventually, shader and vertex processors merged, becoming larger collections of essentially identical processors.

Then things started to get interesting.

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